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Outer Space

Outer Space

 Unit 6 is currently undertaking a detailed study of the outer space treaties to ascertain whether Malaysia is in a position to be a party to such treaties. The outer space treaties are as follows:
  1. Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (Outer Space Treaty ) yang berkuat kuasa pada 10 Oktober 1967;
  2. Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space (Rescue Agreement) yang berkuat kuasa pada 3 Disember 1968;
  3. Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects (Liability Convention) yang berkuat kuasa pada 1 September 1972;
  4. Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space (Registration Convention) yang berkuat kuasa pada 15 September 1976;
  5. Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (Moon Agreement) yang berkuat kuasa pada 11 September 1984;
  6. Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water ;
  7. Convention Relating to the Distribution of Programme-Carrying Signals Transmitted by Satellite;
  8. Agreement Relating to the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTERSAT) Relating to the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization, with annex;
  9. Agreement on the Establishment of the INTERSPUTNIK International System and Organization of Space Communications;
  10. Conventions for the Establishment of a European Space Agency (ESA);
  11. Agreement of the Arab Corporation for Space Communications (ARABSAT);
  12. Agreement on Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for Peaceful Purposes (INTERCOSMOS);
  13. Convention on the International Mobile Satellite Organization;
  14. Convention Establishing the European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (EUTELSAT);
  15. Convention for the Establishment of a European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellite (EUMETSAT); and
  16. International Telecommunication Constitution and Convention.

 Pursuant to the above, this Unit is assisting in the drafting of an outer space law to enable Malaysia to implement its obligations under the outer space treaties in the event that Malaysia decides to become a party to any of the treaties.

 In addition, this Unit is also studying the outer space laws of other countries to facilitate the drafting of a Malaysian outer space law which would be in line with the needs and policies of this country apart from fulfilling the obligations imposed under the outer space treaties. Among the outer space laws of other countries which are being studied by this Unit are the outer space laws of the United Kingdom, Australia, Ukraine, Russia and South Africa.

 The officers of this Unit are also often requested by the National Space Agency of Malaysia to attend domestic and international meetings on outer space laws in order to provide legal advice and opinion so as to protect the interests of the country, such as participating in the negotiations in the drafting of conventions or becoming members of legal sub-committees for certain treaties.

 This Unit is also given the responsibility to represent the Attorney General’s Chambers in the Inter-Agency Space Coordination Committee for the National Space Agency.

 In 2006, officers from this Unit have been involved in the National Astronaut Programme particularly in the negotiations for the drafting of the related agreements such as the Supplementary Agreement for the Implementation of the Offset Project and the Contract on the Implementation of the Scientific Programme between the Government of Malaysia and the Russian Federal State Unitary Enterprise (ROSOBORONEXPORT) and the Russian Federal Space Agency (ROSCOSMOS), respectively.